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Coarctation of the Aorta

Overview :

Blood leaves the heart by way of the left ventricle and is distributed to the body by arteries. The aortic arch is the first artery to carry blood as it leaves the heart. Other arteries to the head and arms branch off the aortic arch. A narrowing of the aorta at any spot produces resistance to the flow of blood. This causes high blood pressure before the narrowing and low pressure below the narrowing (downstream). Parts of the body supplied by arteries that branch off the aortic arch before the narrowing have high blood pressure, while most of the lower body does not receive enough blood supply. To compensate for this, the heart works harder, and the blood pressure rises.

Approximately half of all infants with coarctation of the aorta are diagnosed within the first two months of life. Frequently, there are other congenital cardiac complications present. Infants with Turner syndrome have a 45% rate of also having coarctation. There is evidence that some cases of coarctation may be inherited.

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