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Approximately 170 million people in the tropical and subtropical areas of southeast Asia, South America, Africa, and the islands of the Pacific are affected by this debilitating parasitic disease. While filariasis is rarely fatal, it is the second leading cause of permanent and long-term disability in the world. The World Health Organization (WHO) has named filariasis one of only six "potentially eradicable" infectious diseases and has embarked upon a 20-year campaign to eradicate the disease.

In all cases, a mosquito first bites an infected individual then bites another uninfected individual, transferring some of the worm larvae to the new host. Once within the body, the larvae migrate to a particular part of the body and mature to adult worms. Filariasis is classified into three distinct types according to the part of the body that becomes infected: lymphatic filariasis affects the circulatory system that moves tissue fluid and immune cells (lymphatic system); subcutaneous filariasis infects the areas beneath the skin and whites of the eye; and serous cavity filariasis infects body cavities but does not cause disease. Several different types of worms can be responsible for each type of filariasis, but the most common species include the following: Wucheria bancrofti, Brugia malayi (lymphatic filariasis), Onchocerca volvulus, Loa loa, Mansonella streptocerca, Dracunculus medinensis (subcutaneous filariasis), Mansonella pustans, and Mansonella ozzardi (serous cavity filariasis).

The two most common types of the disease are Bancroftian and Malayan filariasis, both forms of lymphatic filariasis. The Bancroftian variety is found throughout Africa, southern and southeastern Asia, the Pacific islands, and the tropical and subtropical regions of South America and the Caribbean. Malayan filariasis occurs only in southern and southeastern Asia. Filariasis is occasionally found in the United States, especially among immigrants from the Caribbean and Pacific islands.

A larvae matures into an adult worm within six months to one year and can live between four and six years. Each female worm can produce millions of larvae, and these larvae only appear in the bloodstream at night, when they may be transmitted, via an insect bite, to another host. A single bite is usually not enough to acquire an infection, therefore, short-term travelers are usually safe. A series of multiple bites over a period of time is required to establish an infection. As a result, those individuals who are regularly active outdoors at night and those who spend more time in remote jungle areas are at an increased risk of contracting the filariasis infection.

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