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Myxoma


Overview :

Myxoma is an intracardiac tumor; it is found inside the heart. Seventy five percent of all myxomas are found in the left atrium, and almost all other myxomas are found in the right atrium. It is very rare for a myxoma to be found in either of the ventricles. The tumor takes one of two general shapes: a round, firm mass, or an irregular shaped, soft, gelatinous mass. They are attached to the endocardium, the inside lining of the heart. The cells that make up the tumor are spindle-shaped cells and are embedded in a matrix rich in mucopolysaccharides (a group of carbohydrates). Myxomas may contain calcium, which shows up on x rays. The tumor gets its blood supply from capillaries that bring blood from the heart to the tumor. Thrombi (blood clots) may be attached to the outside of the myxoma.

There are three major syndromes linked to myxomas: embolic events, obstruction of blood flow, and constitutional syndromes. Embolic events happen when fragments of the tumor, or the thrombi attached to the outside of the tumor, are released and enter the blood stream. Gelatinous myxomas are more likely to embolize than the more firm form of this tumor.

Myxomas may also obstruct blood flow in the heart, usually at a heart valve. The mitral valve is the heart valve most commonly affected. Blood flow restrictions can lead to pulmonary congestion and heart valve disease. Embolization can lead to severe consequences. In cases of left atrial myxoma, 40-50% of patients experience embolization. Emboli usually end up in the brain, kidneys, and extremities.

The third syndrome linked to myxomas are called constitutional syndromes, nonspecific symptoms caused by the myxoma.




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