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Nail-Patella Syndrome

Overview :

Nail-patella syndrome is also known as Fong Disease, Hereditary Onycho-Osteodysplasia (H.O.O.D.), Iliac Horn Disease, and Turner-Kieser syndrome. Patients who have nail-patella syndrome may show a variety of physical defects. The hallmark features of this syndrome are poorly developed fingernails, toenails, and patellae (kneecaps). Other common abnormalities include elbow deformities, abnormally shaped pelvis bone (hip bone), and kidney (renal) disease.

Less common medical findings include defects of the upper lip, the roof of the mouth, and unusual skeletal abnormalities. Skeletal abnormalities may include poorly developed scapulae (shoulder blades), sideways bent fingers (clinodactyly), clubfoot, scoliosis, and unusual neck bones. There are also other effects, such as thickening of the basement membrane in the skin and of the tiny clusters of capillaries (glomeruli) in the kidney. Scientists have recognized an association between nail-patella syndrome and colon cancer. Nail-patella syndrome is associated with open-angle glaucoma, which, if untreated, may lead to blindness. Patients may also have cataracts, drooping eyelids (ptosis), or corneal problems such as glaucoma.

People with nail-patella syndrome may display only a few or many of the recognized signs of this disease. Symptoms vary widely from person to person. Signs even vary within a single family with multiple affected members.

The incidence of nail-patella syndrome is approximately one in 50,000 births. This disorder affects males and females equally. It is found throughout the world and occurs in all ethnic groups. The strongest risk factor for nail-patella syndrome is a family history of the disease.

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